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oriented marketing has resulted in downloader behaviour becoming an independent The study of consumer behaviour helps everybody as all are consumers. It is. Consumer behavior is about the approach of how people download and the use All the content and graphics published in this e-book are the property of Tutorials. We are all confronted with a myriad of Consumer Behaviour issues everyday. Whether you are deciding about which laptop to download for yourself, which television .

Information Processing. For the past 10 to 15 years, information processing has been the dominant approach in consumer-behavior research. A major assumption of this approach is that the ability of humans to consider all possible decision alternatives and to reach a utility-maximizing decision is limited.

Instead, the choice process is characterized by bounded rationality March and Simon, in which persons consider or process only a limited amount of the information available for decision making. The resulting decision is satisfying rather than optimizing. The computer has played an important role in information processing; many of the concepts have resulted from attempts to model human intelligence with a computer.

Since information processing is currently the most dominant perspective in consumer behavior research, it is discussed in much greater detail below. That is, it focuses on the factors that are the basis of a behavior rather than on the behavior itself. Consumer-behavior models that use information processing do not ignore learning effects; rather, they go beyond simple behavioral predictions to achieve more complex explanations of consumer behavior. The information-processing approach interprets consumer choices as a function of three processes: information acquisition, information organization, and information utilization.

Figure 1 presents these three processes in a simplified form. Adapted from Sternthal and Craig, Information acquired from external sources, as well as information recalled from memory, affects consumer behavior. If external information is to influence consumer choice, it must be perceived, represented in memory, and then organized so that the consumer can gain access to it when necessary. For example, Bettman and Kakkar showed that consumers tend to organize information regarding familiar products by brand.

The consumer's personal characteristics, such as age, social class, and personal life-style, affect the way this information is organized Capon and Burke, ; Henry, When making a product choice, consumers gain access to the organized information in their memory by using various decision rules. The consumer's choice will affect future choices, as shown in Figure 1. The arrow leading from consumer choice back to information acquisition suggests that how a choice is reinforced will influence future choices.

Information Acquisition Figure 2 presents a more detailed representation of information acquisition. A consumer actively processes incoming information in four stages: exposure to information, information reception, cognitive analysis, and attitude formation. Each stage is influenced by long-term memory. Exposure to information can be either active or passive and can be affected by a consumer's judgment of the information's usefulness.

A consumer on a strict weight reduction diet may actively search for information about a food's caloric content. To a consumer who is less concerned about weight reduction, caloric content information may not be actively sought.

Information reception involves sensory arousal and attention. Research indicates that in order for a consumer to attend to information, a moderate level of arousal is optimal, whereas a high level limits breadth of attention and a low level limits depth of attention Hansen, Consumers are selective about the information that receives their attention: It must be pertinent and have a signal strong enough to arouse them.

Cognitive analysis is required for information to influence a consumer's choice. Initially, the information must be comprehended; that is, the consumer determines the extent to which the meaning inferred from the message is the same as that intended by the source. Once the message is received, the consumer retrieves from memory thoughts relevant to the object or issue and evaluates them in relation to the message. A judgment is then made about the message, based on its integration with previously held opinion.

If the previously held opinion differs from the present message, consumers generate counterarguments that impede message acceptance. If the previously held opinion is consistent with the new information, consumers more readily accept the present message.

Information Organization Once the information is acquired, it must be organized in a meaningful way in memory to facilitate utilization. Researchers have found that consumers organize information by brand, by attribute, or by some combination of the two Bettman and Kakkar, ; Biehal and Chakravarti, Consumers prefer different means of organizing information under different conditions. A consumer's familiarity with the product, for example, is one variable that affects the preferred method of organizing information about that product Johnson and Russo, ; Park and Lessig, If consumers are familiar with a product class, they prefer to organize incoming information by brand.

If consumers are less familiar with the product class, they seem to prefer organization of incoming information by attribute. Information Utilization Consumers employ heuristics empirical rules of thumb to facilitate making a satisfactory choice with minimum effort. Four models describe the use of these heuristics by consumers: the linear model, the lexicographic model, the conjunctive model, and the disjunctive model.

For a complete description of the four models, see Bettman, Linear Model. Most investigations of information organization have tested the extent to which the linear model predicts preference. All linear models assume that two components account for a consumer's judgment: 1 belief that an alternative a potential product choice possesses some attribute and 2 evaluation of that attribute's importance.

In a typical product judgment, a consumer decides the importance of each product attribute, evaluates the extent to which a product possesses each attribute, multiplies the importance weights by the attribute evaluations, and sums across all attributes.

For example, a consumer who is judging loaves of bread might decide that fiber content and freshness are the most important attributes in evaluating different brands. To use the model, the consumer assigns weights to these attributes based on their importance to the download decision and evaluates each brand's degree of fiber content and freshness.

To derive a score for each brand, the consumer multiplies the two attributes weighted by their importance scores and the score of each brand on each attribute. The consumer selects the brand with the highest score.

Embrace the power of internal labels

A basic feature of the linear model is that it views decision making as a compensatory process. That is, a low evaluation of a product on one attribute can be overcome by a high evaluation on another attribute. The linear model makes reasonably accurate predictions, especially when few attributes are used in making judgments. However, consumers' explanations of their own decision-making processes do not fit the linear model.

In addition, when consumers are asked to apply various models consciously to the selection of products, they find the linear model difficult to use Russ, ; Sheridan et al. The Lexicographic Model. The lexicographic model involves a sequential evaluation that simplifies choice Bettman, The decision maker compares alternative products by the most important attribute. If one product is superior on that attribute, it is chosen; if no product is superior, the products are then compared on the second most important attribute.

The process continues until an alternative is chosen. For example, the consumer in the bread-downloading example may rank freshness as the most important and fiber content as the second most important product attribute. If none of the alternative loaves is noticeably most fresh, the loaf with the highest fiber content, the second most important attribute, would be selected.

The Conjunctive Model. In the conjunctive model, the consumer makes a choice that meets minimum criteria on all relevant attributes. For example, the consumer chooses a loaf of bread that is suitably fresh, contains fiber, and is low in price. Frequently, a second model must be applied because the conjunctive model may not produce a unique choice. The Disjunctive Model. The disjunctive model is often used to reduce the number of acceptable alternative products. As with the conjunctive model, a minimum acceptable level is determined for each attribute.

However, the alternative products selected are those that surpass the minimum level on any attribute.

Income Saving And The Theory Of Consumer Behavior

Consumers can and do use the decision rules from more than one of the above models to make a product choice. They may use a disjunctive rule to narrow the set of alternatives, a conjunctive rule to limit that set further, and then a linear or lexicographic rule to make the final choice.

Thus, no decision model is best; rather, each is used under different circumstances, depending on decision complexity, perceived risk, and the format in which information is presented. Decision complexity increases with the number of possible alternatives, the number of attribute dimensions, and the novelty of the choice situation.

Nutrition Information Processing Information Acquisition. In several survey studies Daly, ; cf. Rudell, , consumers reported a desire for more nutrition information, contending that they would use it.

Laboratory studies, however, do not support those reports. In a series of experiments, Jacoby et al. Furthermore, many consumers have poor knowledge of nutrition. In a recent survey Clydesdale, , only 4 of students were aware of the nitrate issue, and two of those seemed to understand it.

Information Misuse and Misunderstanding. Consumers often misunderstand nutrition information. If they do understand it, they tend to misuse it. Several authors Daly, ; Jacoby et al. Consumers do not understand the implications of nutrient composition of foods or adherence to a particular diet. Asam and Bucklin found that subjects rated products as more nutritious when information on nutritional content was printed on the package than when the same products were presented with less information on the package.

Proprietary studies indicate that some consumers interpret the absence of particular ingredients, such as caffeine and sugar, as indicators of product quality. In short, consumers assess the nutritional content of food using, at best, inadequate information; moreover, they apply inaccurate, simplifying heuristic rules to make their product choices. Limits to Information Processing. Determine the limits on the consumer's capacity to process nutrition information.

The amount of information that can be adequately processed appears to depend on the context of the situation. Therefore, researchers should establish the optimum amounts of presented information for various situations. Determine how use context and download context affect processing of nutrition information. That is, information may be processed differently, depending on whether a food is consumed as a meal or a snack and whether it is consumed by family, self, or guests.

Also, consumers may use different decision rules when ordering food in a restaurant than when downloading food in a supermarket. Determine nutrition information needs of various consumer groups, particularly those at nutritional risk. Goals in making choices pertaining to nutrition differ for various groups. Some consumers may, for example, require more detailed specification of fiber, sugar, or vitamin content than do others.

However, rather than simply describing nutritional problems, relevant theory should be applied to solving them. Studying consumer behavior and, more specifically, consumer information processing can improve our understanding of how nutritional choices are made.

To date, research has shown that consumers do not adequately obtain or comprehend nutrition information and that the information they do understand is often misused. A research agenda that focuses on information processing, such as that proposed here, could ultimately help consumers make better nutritional choices.

Ward, G. Lesser, L.

Meringoff, T. Robertson, and J. Lexington Books, Lexington, Mass.

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Consumer Behaviour and PR

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Hemispheric specialization and creative behavior. Recommended Dietary Allowances, 9th ed.

National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D. Park, C. Familiarity and its impact on consumer decision biases and heuristics. Petty, R. The importance of cognitive responses in persuasion. Ostrum, and T. Over the past two decades, the face of the world consumer has truly changed. Goods are more available, information about these goods is more open and accessible, and the ability to download these goods from any corner of the earth has become possible.

As a result, international marketing is more important now than ever before. In this book, Josh Samli explores the challenges facing modern international marketers. He explains what it is to have successful communication with the target market: Any company dealing with international marketing must learn how to handle these new challenges in order to survive in the 21 st century. Skip to main content Skip to table of contents.

Advertisement Hide. Authors view affiliations A.Adapted from Sternthal and Craig, Most researchers have attempted to measure some physiological change that occurs when a subject is exposed to a stimulus, such as an advertisement Krober-Riel, Presented at the 5th Am.

Advertising messages with a strong call-to-action are yet another device used to convert customers. Improving Information Processing. Help Center Find new research papers in:

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